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past perfect
present perfect


all future tenses explained separately;


to download a complete explanation of all future tenses in Word format, please click here

to download a complete explanation of all other tenses in Word format, please click here

   simple:  progressive:




a) actions that ended in the past but have a consequence for the present

b) something that happened in the unspecified past – it is not important when it happened



a) actions that started in the past, are still happening and will continue in the future

b) background information and longer actions that have not yet ended


have/has + 3rd Form


have/has + been + “ing”-form


 example: a) I have forgotten to call, so he is angry now.

b) I have seen the teacher already.

a) I have been reading a good book lately – it has 200 pages and I am reading page 40 right now.

b) He has been waiting in the rain for 20 minutes already.


 time indicators:

since/for, yet, already, lately, recently, just, this week/ month/ year...

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